Rule of Foreign Empires in the Land of Israel

  • 587 BCE: Babylonian Empire: Destruction of the first Temple
  • 538-333 BCE: Persian Empire: Jews return from exile and construct second temple
  • 333-63 BCE: Greek Empire: The Hellenists conquer the region and desecrate the second Temple; the Jews revolt, led by the Maccabees, and regain control.
  • 63 BCE-313 CE: Roman: Romans conquer Jerusalem, destroy the second temple in 70 CE and exile the Jews. Romans rename the land as Palestina to try and eliminate the Jewish connection to the land.
  • 313-636: Byzantine
  • 636-1099: Arab
  • 1099-1291: Crusaders: Crusaders came from Europe to capture the holy land, killing non-Christians.
  • 1291-1516: Mamluk
  • 1516-1918: Ottoman: Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilt the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem.
  • 1917-1948: British: The British restricted Jewish immigration during and after the Holocaust, and split the region into two states—Jordan and Israel.


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